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Kedu ka esi eme Carbon Fiber?

Kedu ka esi eme Carbon Fiber?

Nrụpụta, ojiji na ọdịnihu nke ihe a siri ike, dị fechaa

A na-akpọkwa eriri graphite ma ọ bụ carbon graphite, eriri carbon nwere eriri dị mkpa nke carbon element. Fibre ndị a nwere nnukwu ike nkwụsi ike ma sie ike nke ukwuu maka nha ha. N'ezie, a na-ewere otu ụdị nke eriri carbon-carbon nanotube-dị ka ihe kacha sie ike dị. Ngwa eriri carbon gụnyere ihe owuwu, injinia, ikuku ikuku, ụgbọ ala na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, akụrụngwa egwuregwu, na ngwa egwu. N'ihe gbasara ike, a na-eji eriri carbon na-emepụta agụba ikuku, nchekwa ikuku gas, na mkpụrụ ndụ mmanụ maka njem. N'ime ụlọ ọrụ ụgbọ elu, ọ nwere ngwa na ma ụgbọ elu ndị agha na nke azụmahịa, yana ụgbọ ala na-adịghị mma. Maka nchọpụta mmanụ, a na-eji ya na-emepụta ikpo okwu na-egwu mmiri miri emi na ọkpọkọ.

Eziokwu ngwa ngwa: Carbon Fiber Statistics

  • Ụdọ nke ọ bụla nke eriri carbon bụ 5 microns na dayameta. Iji nye gị nghọta nke obere nke ahụ bụ, otu micron (um) bụ 0.000039 inch. Otu eriri silk udide na-adịkarị n'etiti micron atọ ruo asatọ.
  • Fibre carbon dị ike okpukpu abụọ ka ígwè na ike okpukpu ise ka ígwè, (otu nkeji arọ). Ha na-eguzogide ọgwụ nke ukwuu ma nwee oke okpomọkụ yana mgbasawanye ọkụ dị ala.

Ngwaọrụ
A na-esi na polymer organic eme eriri carbon, bụ nke nwere eriri dị ogologo nke ụmụ irighiri ihe nke atom carbon jikọtara ọnụ. A na-eme ọtụtụ eriri carbon (ihe dịka 90%) site na usoro polyacrylonitrile (PAN). A na-emepụta obere ego (ihe dịka 10%) site na rayon ma ọ bụ usoro ntinye mmanụ.

Gases, mmiri mmiri na ihe ndị ọzọ a na-eji na-emepụta ihe na-emepụta mmetụta, àgwà, na akara nke eriri carbon. Ndị na-emepụta eriri carbon na-eji usoro nke onwe na ngwakọta nke akụrụngwa maka ihe ndị ha na-emepụta na n'ozuzu ha, ha na-ewere usoro ndị a kpọmkwem dị ka nzuzo azụmahịa.

Fibre carbon ọkwa kachasị elu nke nwere modulus kacha arụ ọrụ nke ọma (mgbe niile ma ọ bụ ọnụọgụ nke ejiri egosipụta ogo ọnụọgụ nke ihe nwere otu ihe, dị ka elasticity) na-eji akụrụngwa na-achọ ngwa dị ka ikuku ikuku.

Usoro nrụpụta
Ịmepụta eriri carbon gụnyere ma usoro kemịkalụ na n'ibu. A na-adọta ihe ọkụkụ, nke a maara dị ka precursors, n'ime ogologo eriri wee kpoo ọkụ na oke okpomọkụ na gburugburu anaerobic (enweghị oxygen). Kama ire ọkụ, oke okpomọkụ na-eme ka atom fiber na-ama jijiji nke ukwuu nke na a na-achụpụ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe niile na-abụghị carbon.

Mgbe usoro carbonization gwụchara, eriri nke fọdụrụ bụ nke ogologo carbon atom atom kpọchiri akpọchi nke nwere ole na ole ma ọ bụ na-abụghị nke carbon fọdụrụ. A na-emesịa dụkọta eriri ndị a ka ọ bụrụ akwa akwa ma ọ bụ jikọta ya na ihe ndị ọzọ a na-eme ọnya filament ma ọ bụ kpụzie ya n'ụdị na nha achọrọ.

Akụkụ ise ndị a na-ahụkarị na usoro PAN maka imepụta eriri carbon:

  • Ntugharị. A na-agwakọta PAN na ihe ndị ọzọ ma gbanye ya n'ime eriri, nke a na-asachapụ ma gbatịa.
  • Nkwụsi ike. A na-eme mgbanwe kemịkalụ ndị ahụ iji mee ka njikọ kwụsie ike.
  • Carbonizing. A na-ekpo ọkụ eriri ndị kwụsiri ike ruo oke okpomọkụ na-akpụ kristal carbon jikọtara ọnụ.
  • Na-emeso elu. A na-eme ka elu nke eriri ndị ahụ dị oxidized iji melite njirimara njikọ.
  • Nha nha. A na-ekpuchi eriri ma merụọ ahụ n'elu bobbins, bụ ndị a na-ebunye n'elu igwe na-agbagharị eriri ndị ahụ n'ime yarn dị iche iche. Kama ịbụ nke a ga-akpa n'ákwà, a pụkwara ịmepụta eriri ka ọ bụrụ ihe ndị mejupụtara, na-eji okpomọkụ, nrụgide, ma ọ bụ oghere iji jikọta eriri na polymer rọba.

A na-emepụta carbon nanotubes site na usoro dị iche karịa eriri carbon ọkọlọtọ. A na-eche na ọ ga-esi ike ugboro 20 karịa nke mbụ ha, a na-emepụta nanotubes n'ime ọkụ ọkụ na-eji laser eme ihe na-ekpochapụ ihe ndị dị na carbon.

Ihe ịma aka nrụpụta
Imepụta eriri carbon na-ebu ọtụtụ ihe ịma aka, gụnyere:

  • Mkpa maka mgbake na nrụzi dị ọnụ ahịa karịa
  • Ọnụ ahịa nrụpụta na-adịghị adịgide adịgide maka ngwa ụfọdụ: Dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'agbanyeghị na teknụzụ ọhụrụ na-emepe emepe, n'ihi ụgwọ amachibidoro, iji eriri carbon na ụlọ ọrụ ụgbọ ala ugbu a bụ naanị ụgbọ ala dị elu na okomoko.
  • A ghaghị ịhazi usoro ọgwụgwọ elu nke ọma iji zere ịmepụta olulu ndị na-ebute eriri ndị na-adịghị mma.
  • Mechie njikwa achọrọ iji hụ na ịdịmma na-agbanwe agbanwe
  • Nsogbu ahụike na nchekwa gụnyere akpụkpọ ahụ na mgbakasị iku ume
  • Arcing na mkpirisi na ngwa eletriki n'ihi ike electro-conductivity nke carbon fibers

Ọdịnihu nke Carbon Fiber
Ka teknụzụ fiber carbon na-aga n'ihu na-etolite, ohere maka eriri carbon ga-agbanwe ma na-abawanye. Na Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ọtụtụ ọmụmụ na-elekwasị anya na eriri carbon na-egosilarị nnukwu nkwa maka ịmepụta teknụzụ nrụpụta ọhụrụ na imewe iji gboo mkpa ụlọ ọrụ na-apụta.

MIT Associate Prọfesọ nke Mechanical Engineering John Hart, onye ọsụ ụzọ nanotube, na ụmụ akwụkwọ ya na-arụkọ ọrụ iji gbanwee teknụzụ maka imepụta ihe, gụnyere ilele ihe ọhụrụ a ga-eji na-ejikọta na ndị na-ebi akwụkwọ 3D azụmahịa. “Ajụrụ m ha ka ha chee echiche kpamkpam n'okporo ụzọ; ma ọ bụrụ na ha nwere ike ịtụrụ ime ngwa nbipute 3-D nke a na-emetụbeghị mbụ ma ọ bụ ihe bara uru nke a na-apụghị ibipụta site na iji ndị na-ebi akwụkwọ ugbu a," Hart kọwara.

Ihe si na ya pụta bụ ígwè ọrụ ihe atụ ndị na-ebipụta iko a wụrụ awụ, ice cream na-adị nro—na ihe ndị mejupụtara eriri carbon. Dị ka Hart si kwuo, otu ụmụ akwụkwọ mepụtakwara igwe ndị nwere ike ijikwa "nnukwu ihe na-emekọ ihe nke polymers" ma rụọ "nyocha anya n'ọnọdụ" nke usoro obibi akwụkwọ.

Na mgbakwunye, Hart na MIT Associate Prọfesọ nke Chemistry Mircea Dinca rụkọrọ ọrụ na mmekorita afọ atọ ya na Automobili Lamborghini mechiri na nso nso a iji nyochaa ohere nke eriri carbon ọhụrụ na ihe mejupụtara nke nwere ike otu ụbọchị ọ bụghị naanị “mee ka ahụ zuru oke nke ụgbọ ala ahụ bụrụ. a na-eji ya dị ka sistemu batrị,” mana na-eduga na “anụ ọkụ ọkụ, ahụ siri ike, ndị na-atụgharị catalytic na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, agba dị gịrịgịrị, yana nkwalite ọkụ ọkụ ụgbọ oloko ka mma [n'ozuzu].

Site na mmepe dị otú ahụ dị egwu na mbara igwe, ọ bụghị ihe ijuanya na a na-atụ anya na ahịa carbon fiber ga-eto site na ijeri $ 4.7 na 2019 ruo $ 13.3 ijeri site na 2029, na ọnụ ọgụgụ uto kwa afọ (CAGR) nke 11.0% (ma ọ bụ ntakịrị elu) karịa. otu oge ahụ.

Isi mmalite

  • McConnell, Vicki. "Ịmepụta Carbon Fiber." CompositeWorld. Disemba 19, 2008
  • Sherman, Don. "Enweghị eriri Carbon: Ihe na-emepe emepe na-esote bụ 20 ugboro siri ike." Ụgbọ ala na ọkwọ ụgbọala. Maachị 18, 2015
  • Randall, Danielle. "Ndị nchọpụta MIT na Lamborghini na-arụkọ ọrụ iji mepụta ụgbọ ala eletrik nke ọdịnihu." MITMECHE/Na Akụkọ: Ngalaba Chemistry. Nọvemba 16, 2017
  • Ahịa Carbon Fiber site na Raw Material (PAN, Pitch, Rayon), Ụdị Fiber (Virgin, Recycled), Ụdị Ngwaahịa, Modulus, Ngwa (Composite, Na-abụghị Ngwakọta), Ụlọ ọrụ Ọgwụgwụ (A & D, Automotive, Wind Energy). ), na Mpaghara-Amụma Mba Nile ruo 2029." MarketsandMarkets™. Septemba 2019

Oge nzipu: Jul-28-2021